There are different types of dump trucks.
Some are big heavy haul dump trucks, like the ones from Cat, while others are smaller size dump trucks.
Some dump trucks haul dirt, sand, gravel, or demolition waste while working on construction sites, while others work exclusively on mining sites.
Today, I'll share a list of different types of dump trucks. Check below.
1. Standard dump truck
The basic configuration of standard dump trucks uses one front axle and one rear axle. If the dump truck needs to carry a heavier load, additional axles are added.
A standard dump truck has its open bed mounted, the hydraulic system, the driver's cabin the same chassis.
As the hydraulic ram system raises the bed, it dumps the material out.
While dumping out the material, there are two ways in which the gate opens to release the material:
1. The classic swing gate - after it's unlocked, under the gravity force, the dump gate opens up to release the material.
2. The high lift tailgate - the gate raises straight up via its hydraulic or electronic system to open up and release the material. Check out this video.
Generally, the standard dump truck is used in dispersing soil in landscaping sites, adding salt in ice and snow, and doing works on the construction sites.
The downside of this model is that it’s not suitable for building sites where the soil is soft.
2. Transfer dump truck
A transfer dump truck has a standard dump truck as its base that pulls a separate movable cargo container on a trailer. The separate trailer is then pulled within the body of the main truck. Check out this video.
The trailer is detachable, but it must remain attached to the dump truck to be able to dump because it doesn’t have its dump controls. The controls are on the truck.
3. Truck and pup
A truck and pup is essentially the same thing as a transfer dump truck except for one difference. The trailer (which is called a pup trailer or simply a pup) is capable of standalone dumping. The controls for hydraulically lifting the dump on the pup are located on the pup and not on the truck as with a transfer dump truck.
Without these controls, the pup is just a regular trailer.
4. End dump truck
End dump truck is a tractor-trailer combination where the trailer contains its hydraulic system.
In the US, a typical semi end dump has a 3-axle tractor pulling a 2-axle trailer with dual tires.
The key advantage of a semi end dump is a large payload.
However, a key disadvantage is its instability when raising the bed in the dumping position where the dumping location is uneven or off level.
5. Side dump truck
The side dump truck consists of a 3-axle tractor pulling a 2-axle semi-trailer. The hydraulic rams tilt the bed onto the sides so that the material can go out either to the left or to the right of the truck.
The advantage of the side dump is that it allows rapid unloading.
Since the material opening is larger, dumping to the sides allows for faster unloading, and it's safer because the truck is less likely to tip.
The hydraulic rams move the dump body to the sides to dump the material.
Side dumps don't have gates.
6. Tri-axle dump truck
This type of dump truck is used for transporting smaller loads on short distances.
In urban or suburban areas, this tri-axle dump truck is a popular choice because these trucks are easier to maneuver in tight streets of a busy city.
7. Super dump truck
A super dump truck is equipped with a trailing axle. That is a liftable load-bearing axle rated as high as 13,000 pounds.
When the super dump is fully loaded with material, the trailing axle is located 11 feet behind the rear tandem axle. But, when the truck is empty or ready to offload, the trailing axle toggles up off the road surface on two hydraulic arms to clear the rear of the vehicle. That stretches the distance between the first and last axles (known as the outer “bridge” measurement) to the maximum allowable length.
Depending on the vehicle length and axle configuration, super dumps can be rated as high as 80,000 pounds. GVW and carry 26 short tons of payload.
8. Bottom dump (belly dump)
A semi bottom dump or belly dump is a 3-axle tractor pulling a 2-axle trailer with a clamshell type dump gate in the belly of the trailer.
The key advantage of a semi bottom dump is its ability to lay material in a windrow or a linear heap.
In addition, a semi bottom dump is maneuverable in reverse, unlike the double and triple trailer configurations.
In this case, the dump gate resembles a clam shell and is located on the bottom of the trailer.
The gate can either open in two ways:
1. Front to rear (called the cross-spread gate)
2. From the middle to the sides (called the windrow gate).
The second option places a lot more material in the center whereas the first option spreads material more evenly.
9. Double bottom (double belly dump)
The double bottom is similar to the bottom dump but with the addition of an extra trailer to increase the amount that can be transported in each trip.
Double and triple bottom dumps consist of a 2-axle tractor pulling one single-axle semi-trailer and an additional full trailer (or two full trailers in the case of triples). These dump trucks allow the driver to lay material in windrows without leaving the cab or stopping the truck.
The main disadvantage is the difficulty in backing double and triple units.
These trucks are ideal for carrying multiple types of material to a single location.
10. Off-highway dump trucks
These trucks are heavy construction equipment. The major difference from other types of dump trucks is that they are not used on highways.
These are some of the biggest dump trucks in the world.
These are used primarily for off-road jobs like mining and heavy dirt hauling.
Off-road dump truck for its incredible carrying capacity and traction. Because of its powerful engine and massive tires, it’s able to work in terrain or undeveloped areas not suitable for any other type of dump truck.
The manufacturers of these types of trucks avoid using “dump truck” to refer to them, typically using “haul truck” instead.
Off-highway dump trucks are heavy construction equipment and share little resemblance to highway dump trucks.
They have a rigid frame and conventional steering with the drive at the rear wheel.
As of late 2013, the largest ever production haul truck is:
- the 450 metric ton BelAZ 75710
- the Liebherr T 282B
- the Bucyrus MT6300AC
- the Caterpillar 797F
Each has payload capacities of up to 400 short tons.
The smallest rigid haul trucks, on the other hand, have capacities at around 60 tons.
They are used exclusively in mining applications.
11. Roll-off trucks
A Roll-off has a hoist and subframe, which allows it to carry removable containers.
While being on the ground, the container is loaded and pulled onto the back of the truck with a winch and cable.
The hoist is raised, and the container slides down the subframe so that the rear is on the ground.
The containers are usually open-topped boxes used for rubble and building debris, but rubbish compactor containers are also carried.
12. Articulated hauler
An articulated dumper is an all-wheel-drive, off-road dump truck. It has a hinge between the cab and the dump box but is distinct from a semi-trailer truck in that the power unit is a permanent fixture, not a separable vehicle.
Steering is accomplished via hydraulic cylinders that pivot the entire tractor concerning the trailer, rather than a rack and pinion steering on the front axle as in a conventional dump truck.
By this way of steering, the trailer’s wheels follow the same path as the front wheels. Together with all-wheel drive and a low center of gravity, it is highly adaptable to rough terrain.
Major manufacturers include Volvo CE, Terex, John Deere, and Caterpillar.
Manufacturers of ADTs available in North America include Caterpillar, John Deere, Liebherr, Volvo Construction Equipment, Bell Equipment, and Hydrema.
With poor road conditions, the articulated dump truck offers excellent performance.